Drainage is the means of removing surplus water or liquid waste using a system of drains. Good practice is to cause no harm to Mother Nature when we design the drainage system. Toxic materials have to be handled in the most appropriate and ethical manner possible. Drainage systems are usually designed keeping in mind that gravity will be used to move the liquid from one segment to the other. So this would naturally mean that the slope or contours of the land have to be utilized to the fullest to have an efficient and cost effective method for drainage.
The drain or the manhole has to be located at the lowest point in the property so the liquid flows naturally towards the manhole without the use of pumps. The invert levels and slopes have to be decided accordingly keeping in mind the natural contours of the property and also the amount of liquid waste that would need to be drained.
Now to show a poorly designed drainage system, one can have a look at the picture below.
As one can see above in the picture, the drainage manhole is located at the highest point of the area. So naturally the rain water has no way to go but to flow towards the lower parts of the area and collect there. Thus the drainage system has failed for this area due to poor engineering and not keeping in mind the correct invert levels and slopes while designing the drainage system.
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